Carnelian is a translucent red or orange variety of chalcedony, sometimes banded red and orange like an agate. Once believed to benefit the wearer's health and love life. Most carnelian comes from Brazil, India, Siberia, and Germany.
Deep red garnet is derived from a number of minerals, including pyrope and almandine. Popularized in Bohemia in the Czech Republic, garnet has been used in decoration and jewelry across Europe for many years. Its color is generally a dark burgundy, sometimes with a hint of orange, pink, or purple.
Used since ancient times for a variety of purposes, beautiful quartz is a versatile gem coming in a multitude of colors. Lemon quartz shows a truer yellow to citrine's golden hue, and its transparent beauty is often displayed in a cut form.
Spring green peridot is the gem variety of ovaline, a silicate mineral thought to be common in the upper mantle of Earth's crust. Peridot-grade ovaline is most abundant in Pakistan and other dry areas. Used as early as 1580 BC in Egypt, peridot is held as a symbol of the Sun.
The relatively abundant mineral smoky quartz ranges in color from almost black to nearly colorless. Gem quality specimens are mined from the Swiss Alps and from Pike's Peak in Colorado. Dark smoky quartz is sometimes heat-treated to give it a lighter color which appears more brilliant when cut.